BUILDING OF THE REPLICA
1986, the Columbus Foundation was formed in the British Virgin Islands
to raise money to build the three ships that Christopher Columbus
used in his encounter with the New World. With the 500th Anniversary
only six years away, it seemed like an opportune time to encourage
interest in such a project. What was not known at the time that
the quincentennial would turn out to be such a non-event. Some people
saw nothing to celebrate. Instead, they thought that it should be
an occasion to protest while pursuing modern political agendas.
The Columbus Foundation wasn't looking for heroes or villains. Theirs
was a search for information. There were no authentic pictures of
the Pinta, Niña or the Santa Maria,and all of the
so-called models, replicas, or reproductions that had been built
in the past merely represented what some artist, architect, archaeologist
or model ship builder thought what they ought to have looked like.
The next two years were spent in research. During that time it became evident that due to money and time constraints it would be possible to build only one replica. It was decided that the Niña would be built. The original Santa
Maria ran aground in Hispaniola and sank on the first voyage.
She was a nao, or freighter and was built in Galicia. She became
the flagship because she was the largest of the fleet but Columbus
disliked her for her dull sailing qualities, and when she sank
he recorded in his journal she was very heavy heavy and not
suitable for the business of discovery. The least was known
about the Pinta, and after the first voyage she disappeared
from history without a trace. The Niña, like the Pinta,
was a caravel, which was a common trading vessel in use during
the Age of Discovery.
Caravels were also used as cargo carriers, warships, patrol
boats, and even corsairs (pirate ships). Their advantages were
speed, a shallow draught, and manoeuvrability, plus the fact
that they were good sailing ships. The Niña, which is
rigged as a Caravela Redonda, has square sails on the main and
foremast for sailing downwind, and lateen (triangular) sails
on the mizzen masts.
Caravels have always been linked with Portuguese and Spanish
explorations and explorers. They were used to chart the Coast
of Africa to the Cape of Good Hope by Bartholomew Diaz; they
took part in all four of Columbus voyages; they were used by
Vasco de Gama in 1502; in 1519, the caravel Santiago accompanied
Magellan's expedition. The Caravel heydey lasted almost a hundred
years from the early 1400's to the 1530's. Once Columbus established
transatlantic routes, larger cargo vessels as well as warships
were required, which paved the way for the development of the
Columbus changed the Niña's rig to a Caravela Redonda
before the first voyage. The Niña was Columbus'; favorite.
She made the entire first voyage, bringing the Admiral safely
home. When Columbus had the pick of the whole Merchant Marine
on his second voyage he selected her out of 17 ships as his
flagship for an exploratory voyage to Cuba, and purchased a
half share in her. After his return she made an unauthorized
voyage from Cadiz to Rome, was captured by a pirate off Sardinia,
recaptured by her master and crew and returned to Cadiz in time
to sail to Hispaniola early in 1498 as advance guard of Columbus
third voyage. She was lying in Santo Domingo in 1500, and we
last hear of her making a trading voyage to the Pearl Coast
in 1501. The Niña logged at least 25,000 miles under
In 1988, the Columbus Foundation hired John Patrick Sarsfield (Click here for more info on John), an American engineer, maritime historian, and expert on Portuguese caravels, to design and construct a replica of the Niña.
John had lived in Brazil while working in the Peace Corps, and
had learned of an archaic ship building process called Mediterranean
Whole Moulding. This was a technique used by master ship builders
in the 15th Century and likely used to build the original ships.
Sarsfield discovered this technique in daily use in shipyards
on the coast of Bahia in Brazil. In a sleepy little fishing village
called Valenca, Sarsfield slowly gained the confidence of the
Valencan shipwrights and they began to share with him the secrets
of their techniques. Valenca was chosen as the building site for
three reasons: shipwrights were using Mediterranean Whole Moulding
in conjunction with mechanically generated geometric progressions
known as graminhos, techniques that may be similar or identical
to those used by the builders of discovery period ships.
Secondly, shipwrights were using traditional tools, such as axes,
adzes, hand saws and chisels, as well as utilizing traditional
construction methods; and finally, the tropical forests of Bahia
provided a source for the various naturally-shaped timbers necessary
to build a large wooden ship.
Ships of this period were not built from a set of plans but from
the mental template in the head of the shipwright who based the
dimensions of the ship on a set of proportions. Different proportions,
varying from region to region were used for different types, however,
all were based on the length of the keel.
Several important design details, including such fundamental factors
as the number of masts and rigging specifics were clarified by
data from recent discoveries of 15th & 16th Century Spanish
shipwrecks in the Caribbean.
Tragically, on July 11th, 1990, whilst on a trip to select a main
mast for the Niña, John Sarsfield was killed in a traffic
accident. His contribution to the project had been enormous, in
fact, it was his determination to see his theories develop into
reality that made the building of the NiŅa possible.
As the hull was complete, the ship had yet to be rigged. Jonathan
Nance, British maritime historian, and one of the main researchers
of the project, was asked to finish the ship. John produced a
sail plan for the caravel together with numerous drawings of blocks,
spars, and other fittings. Although no information directly relating
to the design and construction of the Niña exists, specific
reference to her rig and gear survives in a document called Libro
de Armadas, which was discovered by Eugene Lyon. It indicated
that the Niña may have been rigged as a four master. The
document also included an inventory of equipment aboard the Niña
in 1498 when a new Master Pedro Frances took over the ship. Nances
sail-plan represents the Niña as she would have appeared
during the eight recorded busy years of her life following her
departure from the Canaries in September 1492.
In June of 1990, the project came to the attention of a group
of marine archaeological researchers from the privately-funded
group Ships of Discovery, based in Corpus Christi, Texas. They
spent a week inspecting the project and came away believing that
they had seen the making of a true fifteenth century discovery
caravel. Their article, published in the January 1991 issue of
Archaeology magazine asserts: combining ethnographic survivals
with pertinent results of documentary, artistic and archaeological
research, Sarsfield's Niña will likely be the most authentic
replica Columbus era ship ever built.
In December of 1991, the Niña left the banks of the Rio Uno in Valenca, Brazil rigged as a four-master. It carried a crew of eleven and arrived in Puntarenas, Costa Rica on January 23rd, 1992 to take part in the film 1492 directed by Ridley Scott and starring Gerard Depardieu. Its voyage of over 4,000 miles represents the first time that a discovery caravel replica has made a successful unescorted open ocean passage of any considerable distance.
The Niña continues to sail to new ports, and also continues
to be the only touring maritime museum of its kind. The ship was
used for Discovery and that is precisely what it will continue
to do, and this is what makes this attraction vessel unique.
LIFE ABOARD THE NIÑA
Life on board the Niña in 1492 was not for the light hearted. When the Niña left on any of her three voyages to the New World, her cargo hold was full of provisions, water, armaments. There were live animals ranging from horses, cows, pigs, and chickens. The four-legged animals were suspended in slings as the rolling motion of the vessel would have easily broken their legs.
Needless to say, there was little room below decks for the 27
or so crew to sleep or cook. Cooking was done in a fire box
located on decks in the bow of the ship. Sleeping was on the
deck and was always uncomfortable as the ship was so loaded
with cargo, her decks were always awash. A lucky few could sleep
on the poop deck or find a coil of rope to sleep on to keep
them off the deck a foot or so.
Life on board improved dramatically when the Niña reached
the New World. New fruits and vegetables were discovered which
helped to eliminate scurvy and most importantly, the Indians
slept in hammocks which the Spanish crew immediately used in
Today life on the Niña is better. We have WWII style
pipe berths to sleep on, an icebox which holds 1000 lbs of ice
and a small propane stove for cooking. Most importantly, we
do not have the smells on board of livestock below decks, and
the associated jobs of cleaning the bilges.
The Columbus Foundation, British Virgin Islands
Phone: (284) 495-4618 Fax: (284) 495-9935
Copyright © 2012 The Columbus Foundation, All Rights Reserved